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##### AC Voltage Calculator
Enter any known quantity to convert between AC voltage values, the form will auto-update as you type.
##### AC Voltage Terms
• Peak Voltage (VPK) The maximum instantaneous value of a function as measured from the zero-volt level. For the waveform shown above, the peak amplitude and peak value are the same, since the average value of the function is zero volts.
• Peak-to-Peak Voltage (VPP) The full voltage between positive and negative peaks of the waveform; that is, the sum of the magnitude of the positive and negative peaks.
• RMS Voltage (Vrms) The root-mean-square or effective value of a waveform, equivalent to a DC voltage that would provide the same amount of heat generation in a resistor as the AC voltage would if applied to that same resistor.
• Average Voltage (Vavg) The level of a waveform defined by the condition that the area enclosed by the curve above this level is exactly equal to the area enclosed by the curve below this level.
##### Notes
• RMS is not an "Average" voltage, and its mathematical relationship to peak voltage varies depending on the type of waveform.
• The RMS value is the square root of the mean (average) value of the squared function of the instantaneous values.
• Since an AC voltage rises and falls with time, it takes more AC voltage to produce a given RMS voltage than it would for DC. For example, it would take 169 volts peak AC to achieve 120 volts RMS (.707 x169).
• Most multi-meters, either voltmeters or ammeters, measure RMS value assuming a pure sinusoidal waveform.
##### AC Voltage Formulas
• ###### Peak Voltage
• VPK = 0.5 x VPP
• VPK = 1.414 x Vrms
• VPK = 1.571 x Vavg
• ###### Peak-to-Peak Voltage
• VPP = 2 x VPK
• VPP = 2.828 x Vrms
• VPP = 3.141 x Vavg
• ###### RMS Voltage
• Vrms = 0.707 x VPK
• Vrms = 0.353 x VPP
• Vrms = 1.111 x Vavg
• ###### Average Voltage
• Vavg = 0.637 x VPK
##### Common Conversions
• RMS Voltage to Peak Voltage
• RMS Voltage to Peak-to-Peak Voltage
• RMS Voltage to Average Voltage
• Peak Voltage to Peak-to-Peak Voltage
• Peak Voltage to Average Voltage
• Average Voltage to Peak-to-Peak Voltage