**Intermediate electrical terms and definitions**- Calculate electrical forces and fields involving one or two charges and one or two dimensions. Solve problems involving Ohm's Law, ac and dc current, resistance, conductance, capacitance, inductance, and potential in series and parallel circuits. Have the ability to recognize the sources and effects of magnetic fields. Find electrical impedance and power in simple circuits with linear elements.**Recommended Reading**- The American Electrician's Handbook by Croft & Summers - Division 9
- Standard Handbook for Electrical Engineers by D. Fink and Beaty - Section 16

**Capacitor Circuits**- AC Capacitor Circuits Pure capacitive circuit: capacitor voltage lags capacitor current by 90°.
- RC Charging Circuit All Electrical or Electronic circuits or systems suffer from some form of "time-delay" between its input and output, when a signal or voltage, either continuous, ( DC ) or alternating ( AC ) is firstly applied to it.
- Parallel RC Circuits Impedances (Z) are managed just like resistances (R) in parallel circuit analysis: parallel impedances diminish to form the total impedance, using the reciprocal formula.

**Inductor Circuits**- AC Inductor Circuits Pure inductive circuit: Inductor current lags inductor voltage by 90°.
- LR Series Circuit The time required for the current flowing in the LR series circuit to reach its maximum steady state value is equivalent to about
**5 time constants**or*5τ*. This time constant*τ*, is measured by*τ = L/R*, in seconds, were*R*is the value of the resistor in ohms and*L*is the value of the inductor in Henries. This then forms the basis of an RL charging circuit were*5τ*can also be thought of as*"5 x L/R"*or the**transient time**of the circuit. - Parallel RL Circuits When resistors and inductors are mixed together in parallel circuits (just as in series circuits), the total impedance will have a phase angle somewhere between 0° and +90°. The circuit current will have a phase angle somewhere between 0° and -90°.

**Combination Circuits**- AC Resistor Circuits Pure resistive AC circuit: resistor voltage and current are in phase.
- Reactance and Impedance -- R, L, and C Translating all component values (resistance, inductance, capacitance) into common terms of impedance is the first step in analyzing an AC circuit.
- Series R, L, and C
- Parallel R, L, and C
- Series-parallel R, L, and C

**Electrical relationships**- Perform calculations related to electrical power, transformation, measurement, and monitoring to includes watts, vars, phase angles, power factor, and phase shifting.**Transformers**- IEEE C57.105
*Guide for Application of Transformer Connections in Three-Phase Distribution Systems* - Three-phase Y and Delta Configurations Line voltage refers to the amount of voltage measured between any two line conductors in a balanced three-phase system. Phase voltage refers to the voltage measured across any one component (source winding or load impedance) in a balanced three-phase source or load.
- Transformer Calculations Learn to utilize the Ohms Law Ladder to do transformer calculations.

- IEEE C57.105
**Power Factor**- Voltage/Current Phase Angle "ELI the ICE man" A mnemonic for the phase relationships of current and voltage.
- True, Reactive, and Apparent Power There are several important power equations relating the three types of power to resistance, reactance, and impedance (all using scalar quantities).
- Effective Power Factor Correction Using Synchronous Motors Unlike induction motors that are by nature reactive, or "lagging," synchronous motors can be set to operate in a "leading" mode that enables them to perform essentially the same function as capacitor banks, creating capacitive energy to counteract system kVARs and permit more efficient kW usage.
- Synchronous condenser Sometimes called a synchronous capacitor or synchronous compensator, a synchronous condenser is a DC-excited synchronous motor, whose shaft is not connected to anything but spins freely. Its purpose is not to convert electric power to mechanical power or vice versa, but to adjust conditions on the electric power transmission grid.

**Vectors and Phasors**- Introduction to Vectors A vector has magnitude (size) and direction.
- Solving Complex Numbers in AC Circuits Learn how to successfully analyze AC circuits using mathematical objects and techniques that represent multi-dimensional quantities.
- Vectors and AC Waveforms When used to describe an AC quantity, the length of a vector represents the amplitude of the wave while the angle of a vector represents the phase angle of the wave relative to some other (reference) waveform.
- Vector Addition If vectors with common angles are added, their magnitudes (lengths) add up just like regular scalar quantities.
- Complex Vector Addition If vectors with uncommon angles are added, their magnitudes (lengths) add up quite differently than that of scalar magnitudes
- Polar and Rectangular Notation In rectangular notation, the first quantity is the "real" component (horizontal dimension of vector) and the second quantity is the "imaginary" component (vertical dimension of vector).
- Introduction to Symmetrical Components Any set of unbalanced three-phase quantities could be expressed as the sum of three symmetrical sets of balanced phasors.

**Recommended Reading**- Solving Complex Numbers in AC Circuits Learn how to successfully analyze AC circuits using mathematical objects and techniques that represent multi-dimensional quantities.
- Balanced Three-Phase Circuits In a balanced three-phase system, each of the three instantaneous voltages have equal amplitudes but are separated from the other voltages by a phase angle of 120°.
- Two Modern Power Quality Issues - Harmonics & Grounding As we connect more electronic devices to our power systems, the "quality" of the power becomes more important. "Quality" can be defined many ways. Stable voltages and undistorted waveforms are two characteristics which are very desirable in power systems.
- Hazards of Harmonics and Neutral Overloads Harmonics are unwanted currents that are multiples of the fundamental line frequency (50 or 60 Hz). Harmonic currents can overload wiring and transformers, creating heat and, in extreme cases, fire.

Please share any material related to this section that you have found helpful by leaving a comment below.