- Types, application, and testing - Identify circuit and equipment grounding and bonding components and systems. Inspect and test as applicable. Measure ground resistance, ground impedance, ground continuity, and soil resistivity. Compare to specification and code requirements in the country of residency.
- Getting Down to Earth: A practical guide to earth resistance testing [PDF] It is the earth's abundance and availability that make it an indispensable component of a properly functioning electrical system.
- Commissioning a Grounding System [PDF] The ground commissioning test is a necessary tool in assuring that ground resistance falls below specified values.
- Some Basics of System Grounding [PDF] Examine some of the fundamentals regarding substation, transmission line, and distribution grounding.
- Some Basics of Distribution Grounding [PDF] The purpose of grounding in AC distribution systems is much the same as for substations, with safety of persons being the highest priority.
- What You Need to Know About Grounding [PDF] NEC Sections 250.4(A)(1) and 250.4(B)(1) provide the overall grounding performance requirements for grounded and ungrounded electrical systems.
- Some Fundamentals of Ground Systems [PDF] Proper grounding of metallic enclosures and support structures protects personnel from dangerous and potentially lethal contact.
- Notes on Substation Grounding [PDF] Utility substation ground grids ensure worker safety and improve power quality.
- Ground Resistance Testing: Four Potential Method [PDF] A brief overview of testing soil with the use of four electrodes.
- Measuring Ground Resistance — The Fall of Potential Method [PDF] Understanding how and why this test method was devised provides a foundation for the whole field of ground testing.
- Clamp-On Ground Resistance Testing [PDF] Testing grounds and bonding should be an active part of any power quality troubleshooting strategy. One effective time-saving method is to use a clamp-on ground tester.
- Ground Testing in Difficult Installations [PDF] Time can be saved by the judicious application of the right test method, and the entire project can be saved by having options to fall back on when one method fails.
- Measuring Soil Resistivity [PDF] Part 2 [PDF] This article examines soil resistivity: its nature, what it means, and how it is measured.
- Some Additional Methods for Soil Resisivity [PDF] The principal method for measuring resistivity is known as the Wenner Method. Other methods are also practiced in situations where Wenner is not the most suitable.
- Fall-of-Potential Ground Testing: Clamp-On Testing Comparison [PDF] This article compares the ground test results obtained from the fall-of-potential method to the clamp-on method.
- Understanding Soil Resistivity Testing [PDF] Learn about the effects of soil resistivity on ground electrode resistance.
- Answering Common Questions about Ground Resistance Testing In this article, we take a look at frequently asked questions by test technicians and trainees related to ground-resistance test methods.
- Grounding and Bonding Most power quality and safety issues in electrical installations arise from misapplication of the grounding and bonding requirements of Art. 250. One common problem is installers ground where they should bond.
- Grounding and Bonding Electrical Systems [PDF] Improper grounding and bonding are a common cause of electrical accidents.
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