- Complex analysis and trending - Analyze insulating liquid and/or gas test results for the purpose of evaluating the equipment. Understand the physical properties of insulating liquids and gases.
- Laboratory Testing of Natural Ester Dielectric Liquids [PDF] This article provides information on the tests that can be performed to evaluate the chemical, physical, and electrical properties of natural ester oils.
- Dissolved Gas Analysis for Transformers [PDF] Along with the oil sample quality tests, performing a dissolved gas analysis (DGA) of the insulating oil is useful in evaluating transformer health.
- Condition Assessment of Transformers — Analysis of Oil Data and Its Quality [PDF] Many analytical tests can be performed which provide information that can then be gathered and formulated into an overall diagnosis.
- Gassing Characteristics of Transformer Oil Under Thermal Stress [PDF] In June 2005, ASTM International adopted a new test method for testing transformer oil.
- Which Insulating Oil Analytical Tests to Request and When [PDF] Choosing the correct tests to perform in a given circumstance can be a daunting task.
- Condition Assessment of Oil Circuit Breakers and Load Tap-Changers by the Use of Laboratory Testing and Diagnostics [PDF] The use of laboratory testing is of increasing importance today as it provides the data to diagnose the condition of oil-fi lled electrical apparatus.
- Nomogram for Interpretation of LTC DGA Data [PDF] Very significant progress has been made on the interpretation of dissolved gas analysis (DGA) data for on-line load tap changers (LTCs).
- Natural Ester Dielectric Liquids [PDF] Unlike transformer mineral oil, which is refined from petroleum derived from compressed plant and animal tissue (mostly microorganisms from 70 to 440 million years ago), these liquids are produced from renewable resources such as vegetable oils and seeds.
- Dibenzyl Disulfide in Transformer Oil [PDF] dibenzyl disulfide (DBDS) has been found in many oils that have resulted in failures of transformers or reactors due to corrosive sulfur attack and the formation of copper sulfide
- Understanding Water in Transformer Systems [PDF] Particularly problematic is excessive moisture in transformer systems, as it affects both solid and liquid insulation with the water in each being interrelated. Water affects the dielectric breakdown strength of the insulation, the temperature at which water vapor bubbles are formed, and the aging rate of the insulating materials.
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