- Short-circuit and coordination studies - Interpret and apply data extracted from the short circuit and coordination pertaining to the project.
- Power System Selectivity: The Basics of Protective Coordination [PDF] This paper provides a brief primer about the essence of coordinating the basic protective components of the electrical power system, including circuit breakers, fuses and protective relays, and to enable the reader to review a plot of time-current curves and evaluate several key concerns.
- X/R ratio and asymmetrical short-circuit current [PDF] This article discusses how X/R ratio affects the level of short circuit current a circuit breaker is required to interrupt
- Arc-Flash Concerns [PDF] There are a number of steps in an arc-flash calculation. The steps in this article are based on using IEEE Std. 1584-2002 equations.
- Equipment failure analysis - Investigate power or protective system faults or malfunctions to determine cause and corrective action required.
- You Just Experienced an Electrical Failure, What Should You Do Next? [PDF] The potential dangers of an electrical failure should never be underestimated.
- Top Five Switchgear Failure Causes [PDF] This article takes a look at the top five general causes for switchgear failures and how they can be prevented.
- Life Extensions Safety Upgrades or Aging Distribution Equipment [PDF] Low- and medium-voltage distribution systems are complex and involve a wide variety of electrical and mechanical components. Therefore, life extension of these systems can be a complex decision.
- Why Things Go "BOOM" in the Night [PDF] Though the mode of failure can vary depending on the type of installation involved, the root cause of the vast majority of electrical failures will tend to fall into three general categories: Natural/environmental causes, Animals, and Workmanship
- SCADA/DCS - Recognize and understand basic requirements, equipment, and configuration of SCADA/DCS systems.
- An Old-School Approach to Implementing SCADA into the Municipal Environment [PDF] Easily installed and effective at gathering data for evaluating system performance, SCADA systems are a useful tool for municipal utilities. A SCADA system allows the utility personnel to quickly react to transient situations and assists in performing their daily activities.
- An Innovative Approach to Implementing SCADA into the Industrial Environment [PDF] Combining the power of the new programmable multifunction relays with the relative low cost of the several HMI software packages available and the ease of Ethernet communications will accommodate a simple and cost-effective SCADA solution.
- Microprocessor-based power monitoring and control systems
- Internet-Accessible Power Monitoring and Control Systems [PDF] Accessing electrical system information from any location allows the system manager to provide quicker command and control of intelligent devices.
- Advanced Spectral Analysis [PDF] This article discusses the fundamentals of these new currentdemodulation methods and shows how they are being used to identify both electrical and mechanical anomalies existing in plants today. It also discusses how using this new feature helps bridge the communication barrier between the mechanical and electrical departments relating to vibration and electrical power analysis.
- Energy Spent on Installing Power Quality Monitoring Pays Off in Industrial and Commercial Environments [PDF] The need to monitor power quality in the industrial and commercial areas from the point of generation through the point of use is unquestionable. But the value of monitoring goes beyond reacting to a specific event.
- 9 Most Common Power Quality Problems The most common types of Power Quality problems are presented below along with their description, causes and consequences, including Voltage sag (or dip), Very short interruptions, Long interruptions, Voltage spike, Voltage swell, Harmonic distortion, Voltage fluctuation, Noise, and Voltage Unbalance.
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